JavaScript – Classes and Prototypes

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In JavaScript, a class is a set of objects that inherit
properties from the same prototype object. The prototype object,
therefore, is the central feature of a class. In Example 6-1 we defined an inherit() function that returns a newly
created object that inherits from a specified prototype object. If we
define a prototype object, and then use inherit() to create objects that inherit
from it, we have defined a JavaScript class. Usually, the instances of
a class require further initialization, and it is common to define a
function that creates and initializes the new object. Example 9-1 demonstrates this: it defines a prototype object
for a class that represents a range of values and also defines a
“factory” function that creates and initializes a new instance of the

Example 9-1. A simple JavaScript class

// range.js: A class representing a range of values.  

// This is a factory function that returns a new range object.
function range(from, to) {
    // Use the inherit() function to create an object that inherits from the
    // prototype object defined below.  The prototype object is stored as
    // a property of this function, and defines the shared methods (behavior)
    // for all range objects.
    var r = inherit(range.methods); 

    // Store the start and end points (state) of this new range object.
    // These are noninherited properties that are unique to this object.
    r.from = from; = to;

    // Finally return the new object
    return r;

// This prototype object defines methods inherited by all range objects.
range.methods = {
    // Return true if x is in the range, false otherwise
    // This method works for textual and Date ranges as well as numeric.
    includes: function(x) { return this.from <= x && x <=; },
    // Invoke f once for each integer in the range.
    // This method works only for numeric ranges.
    foreach: function(f) {
        for(var x = Math.ceil(this.from); x <=; x++) f(x);
    // Return a string representation of the range
    toString: function() { return "(" + this.from + "..." + + ")"; }

// Here are example uses of a range object.
var r = range(1,3);      // Create a range object
r.includes(2);           // => true: 2 is in the range
r.foreach(console.log);  // Prints 1 2 3
console.log(r);          // Prints (1...3)

There are a few things worth noting in the code of Example 9-1. This code defines a factory function range() for creating new range objects.
Notice that we use a property of this range() function range.methods as a convenient place to store
the prototype object that defines the class. There is nothing special
or idiomatic about putting the prototype object here. Second, notice
that the range() function defines
from and to properties on each range object. These
are the unshared, noninherited properties that define the unique state
of each individual range object. Finally, notice that the shared,
inherited methods defined in range.methods all use these from and to properties, and in order to refer to
them, they use the this keyword to
refer to the object through which they were invoked. This use of
this is a fundamental
characteristic of the methods of any class.

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