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Git – Installing Git

How to use the Docker Compose command

At the time of this writing, Git is (seemingly) not installed by
default on any GNU/Linux distribution or any other operating system. So,
before you can use Git, you must install it. The steps to install Git depend
greatly on the vendor and version of your operating system. This chapter
describes how to install Git on Linux and Microsoft Windows and within
Cygwin.

Using Linux Binary Distributions

Many Linux vendors provide precompiled, binary packages to make
the installation of new applications, tools, and utilities easy. Each
package specifies its dependencies, and the distribution’s package manager
typically installs the prerequisites and the desired package in one
(well-orchestrated and automated) fell swoop.

Debian/Ubuntu

On most Debian and Ubuntu systems, Git is offered as a
collection of packages, where each package can be installed independently
depending on your needs. Prior to the 12.04 release, the primary Git
package was called git-core. As of the 12.04
release, it is simply called git, and the
documentation is available in git-doc. There are
other packages to consider,
too.

git-arch
git-cvs
git-svn

If you need to transfer a project from Arch, CVS, or SVN to
Git or vice versa, install one or more of these packages.

git-gui
gitk
gitweb

If you prefer to browse repositories in a graphical
application or your web browser, install these as appropriate.
git-gui is a Tcl/Tk-based graphical user interface for Git;
gitk is another Git browser written in Tcl/Tk but focuses
more on visualizing project history.
gitweb is written in Perl and displays a Git repository in
a browser window.

git-email

This is an essential component if you want to send
Git patches through electronic mail, which is a common practice in
some projects.

git-daemon-run

To share your repository, install this package. It creates a daemon service
that allows you to share your repositories through anonymous
download requests.

Because distributions vary greatly, it’s best to search your
distribution’s package depot for a complete list of Git-related
packages. git-doc and
git-email are strongly recommended.

This command installs the important Git packages by
running apt-get as
root.

    $ sudo apt-get install git git-doc gitweb \
      git-gui gitk git-email git-svn

Other Binary Distributions

To install Git on other Linux distributions, find the appropriate
package or packages and use the distribution’s native package manager to
install the software.

For example, on Gentoo systems, use emerge.

    $ sudo emerge dev-util/git

On Fedora, use yum.

    $ sudo yum install git

The Fedora git is roughly equivalent to
Debian’s git. Other i386 Fedora packages include:

git.i386 :

The core Git tools

git-all.i386 :

A meta-package for pulling in all Git tools

git-arch.i386 :

Git tools for importing Arch repositories

git-cvs.i386 :

Git tools for importing CVS repositories

git-daemon.i386 :

The Git protocol daemon

git-debuginfo.i386 :

Debug information for package
git

git-email.i386 :

Git tools for sending email

git-gui.i386 :

Git GUI tool

git-svn.i386 :

Git tools for importing SVN repositories

gitk.i386 :

Git revision tree visualizer

Again, be mindful that, like Debian, some distributions may split
the Git release among many different packages. If your system lacks a
particular Git command, you may need to install an additional
package.

Be sure to verify that your distribution’s Git packages are
sufficiently up-to-date. After Git is installed on your system, run git –version. If your collaborators use a more modern version of Git,
you may have to replace your distribution’s precompiled Git packages
with a build of your own. Consult your package manager documentation to
learn how to remove previously installed packages; proceed to the next
section to learn how to build Git from source.

Obtaining a Source Release

If you prefer to download the Git code from its canonical
source or if you want the latest version of Git, visit Git’s master
repository. As of this writing, the master repository for Git sources is http://git.kernel.org in the pub/scm/git directory.

The version of Git described in this book is roughly 1.7.9, but you
might want to download the latest revision of the source. You can find a
list of all the available versions at http://code.google.com/p/git-core/downloads/list.

To begin the build, download the source code for version 1.7.9 (or later) and
unpack it.

    $ wget http://git-core.googlecode.com/files/git-1.7.9.tar.gz
    $ tar xzf git-1.7.9.tar.gz
    $ cd git-1.7.9

Building and Installing

Git is similar to other pieces of open source software. Just
configure it, type make, and install
it. Small matter of software, right? Perhaps.

If your system has the proper libraries and a robust build
environment and if you do not need to customize Git, then building the
code can be a snap. On the other hand, if your machine lacks a compiler or
a suite of server and software development libraries, or if you’ve never
built a complex application from source, then you should consider building
Git from scratch only as a last resort. Git is highly configurable, and
building it shouldn’t be taken lightly.

To continue the build, consult the INSTALL file in the Git source bundle. The file
lists several external dependencies, including the zlib,
openssl, and libcurl libraries.

Some of the requisite libraries and packages are a bit obscure or
belong to larger packages. Here are
three tips for a Debian stable distribution.

  • curl-config, a small tool to extract information about the local
    curl install, can be found in the
    libcurl4-openssl-dev package.

  • The header file expat.h
    comes from the libexpat1-dev
    package.

  • The msgfmt utility belongs
    to the gettext package.

Because compiling from sources is considered
development work, the normal binary versions of installed
libraries are not sufficient. Instead, you need the
-dev versions, because the development variants also
supply header files required during compilation.

If you are unable to locate some of these packages or cannot find a
necessary library on your system, the Makefile and configuration options offer
alternatives. For example, if you lack the expat
library, you can set the NO_EXPAT option in the Makefile.
However, your build will lack some features, as noted in the Makefile. For example, you will not be able to
push changes to a remote repository using the HTTP and HTTPS
transports.

Other Makefile configuration
options support ports to various platforms and distributions. For
instance, several flags pertain to Mac OS X’s Darwin operating system.
Either hand-modify and select the appropriate options or find what
parameters are set automatically in the top-level INSTALL file.

Once your system and build options are ready, the rest is easy. By
default, Git is installed in your home directory in subdirectories
~/bin/, ~/lib/, and ~/share/. In general, this default is useful
only if you’re using Git personally and don’t need to share it with other
users.

These commands build and install Git in your home directory.

    $ cd git-1.7.9
    $ ./configure
    $ make all
    $ make install

If you want to install Git into an alternate location, such as
/usr/local/ to provide general
access, add --prefix=/usr/local to the ./configure command. To continue, run make as a normal user, but run make install as root.

    $ cd git-1.7.9
    $ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local
    $ make all
    $ sudo make install

To install the Git documentation, add the doc and install-doc targets to the make and make
install
commands, respectively.

    $ cd git-1.7.9
    $ make all doc
    $ sudo make install install-doc

Several more libraries are needed to do a complete build of the
documentation. As an alternative, prebuilt manpages and HTML pages are
available and can be installed separately as well; just be careful to
avoid version mismatch problems if you choose to go this route.

A build from source includes all the Git subpackages and commands,
such as git-email and gitk. There is no need to build or install those
utilities independently.

Installing Git on Windows

There are two competing Git packages for Windows: a Cygwin-based
Git and a native version called
msysGit.

Both versions work well and support an almost identical set of
features. The version you choose is a matter of personal preference. If
you aren’t sure which one you want, here are some rules of thumb.

  • If you use Cygwin already on Windows, use Cygwin’s Git because
    it interoperates better with your Cygwin setup. For example, all your
    Cygwin-style filenames will work in Git, and redirecting program input
    and output will always work exactly as expected.

  • If you don’t use Cygwin, it’s easier to install
    msysGit because it has its own standalone
    installer.

  • If you want Git integration with the Windows Explorer shell (for
    example, the ability to right-click on a folder and pick Git
    GUI Here
    or Git Bash Here), then install
    msysGit. If you want this feature but prefer to
    use Cygwin, you can install both packages without harm.

If you’re still in doubt about which package to use, install
msysGit. Make sure you obtain the latest version
(1.7.10 or higher) because the quality of Git’s Windows support steadily
improves in successive versions.

Installing the Cygwin Git Package

The Cygwin Git package, as the name implies, is a package inside the Cygwin
system itself. To install it, run Cygwin’s setup.exe program, which you can download from http://cygwin.com.

After setup.exe launches, use
the default settings for most options until you get to the list of
packages to install. The Git packages are in the
devel category, as shown in Figure 2-1.

Figure 2-1. Cygwin setup

After choosing the packages you want to install, click Next a few
more times until the Cygwin installation finishes. You can then start
the Cygwin Bash Shell from your Start menu, which should now include the
git command (Figure 2-2).

Figure 2-2. Cygwin shell

As an alternative, if your Cygwin configuration includes the
various compiler tools like gcc and
make, then you can build your own
copy of Git from source code on Windows under Cygwin by following the
same instructions as on Linux.

Installing Standalone Git (msysGit)

The msysGit package is easy to install
on a Windows system because the package includes all its dependencies. It even has
Secure Shell (SSH) commands to generate the keys that repository maintainers require
to control access. msysGit is designed to integrate well with Windows-style native
applications (such as the Windows Explorer shell).

First, download the latest version of the installer from its home
at http://msysgit.github.com. The file to collect
is usually called something like Git-1.8.3-preview20130601.exe.

After the download completes, run the installer. You should see a
screen that looks something like Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-3. msysGit setup
Figure 2-4. msysGit notice

Depending on the actual version being installed, you may or may
not need to click Next through a compatibility notice, as shown in Figure 2-4. This notice concerns
incompatibilities between Windows-style and Unix-style line endings,
called CRLF and LF, respectively.

Figure 2-5. msysGit choices

Click Next a few more times until you see the screen shown in
Figure 2-5. The best way to run
msysGit on a daily basis is via Windows Explorer,
so check the two pertinent boxes as shown.

In addition, an icon to start Git
Bash
(a command prompt that makes the git commands available) is installed in the
Start menu in the section called Git.
Because most of the examples in this book use the command line, use
Git Bash to get started.

All the examples in this book work equally well on Linux and
Windows, with one caveat: msysGit for Windows uses
the older Git command names mentioned in The Git Command Line of Chapter 3. To follow the examples with
msysGit, enter git-add for git
add
.

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